Full wave matching circuit optimization (FW-MCO) is a new technology that combines full wave, 3D electromagnetic (EM) simulation with circuit optimization into a novel approach for solving an age-old RF problem: determining which component values provide the desired match for a given matching network layout. Gone are the days of soldering components in and out of a prototype, trying to achieve the desired performance. This article describes the design process using the design of a matching circuit for a GPS-Bluetooth antenna.
This is a list of published papers and articles that reference our software.
Entries in Antenna Applications (56)
XF’s Circuit Element Optimizer utilizes full wave analysis to select the component values for a given printed circuit board (PCB) layout. The tool allows design engineers to optimize matching circuit lumped element values directly in the EM layout where the coupling from multiple antennas and the ground return current paths are taken into account. This whitepaper gives an overview of how the Circuit Element Optimizer works and the benefits it provides.
To meet the increasing accuracy needs of high performance automotive radar design work, the FDTD EM simulation method has emerged as a better solution than traditional FEM formulations. FDTD overcomes FEM limitations that force design engineers to trade away accuracy and to simplify their simulation models. This paper introduces FDTD’s advantages for automotive radar circuit and systems level designers.
This whitepaper demonstrates how XFdtd's time-domain approach enables rapid development by allowing engineers to determine the performance of a fully detailed sensor model installed behind a piece of fascia without needing to build prototypes and run tests in an anechoic chamber. The analysis of a 25 GHz sensor frames the discussion.
Finite-Difference Time-Domain Modeling of Ultra-High Frequency Antennas On and Inside the Carbon Fiber Body of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle
In this paper, FDTD simulations are performed on a 900 MHz band antenna inside and outside the carbon fiber body of a solar-powered electric vehicle. Data are analyzed to determine the optimal antenna placement for transmission to a receiving antenna located toward the rear of the solar vehicle.
This presentation demonstrates how the 3D ray tracing code in Wireless InSite can accurately predict received power coverage even in a multi-room environment containing many walls and different materials types. In order to verify the accuracy of the code, the floor plan of Remcom’s business offices was modeled in the software with a WiFi antenna and a third party tool was used to create a coverage plot of the received power throughout several of the suites.
This presentation describes the simulation of a hearing instrument (HI) device. The design was simulated in the presence of a homogeneous SAM phantom and an anatomically correct, heterogeneous head model. The simulation results illustrate the differences between the head models and highlight the more acceptable results for improved device safety.
Devices designed for free space operation often fail to meet expectations when deployed in their actual environment. This study considers the example of designing a broadband antenna for an unattended ground sensor using Remcom's XFdtd Release 7 (XF7). To address the challenge of attaining acceptable performance over both dry and wet ground conditions, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). XStream GPU Acceleration and MPI + GPU technology make this type of sophisticated simulation strategy possible, completing multiple optimizations with hundreds of generations to converge on the best values.
An effective approach is presented for simulation of thin resistive sheets in FDTD. The approach is based on surface impedance and piecewise linear recursive convolution technique. This approach can be combined with a conformal scheme so that it can be applied to deal with an arbitrarily shaped thin sheet. The simulation results for a couple of examples have shown that the approach is robust, stable and quite accurate.
Heterogeneous, mobile wireless networks are becoming increasingly difficult to validate for operational use, depending on digital simulation of the wireless channels to properly predict behaviors in the field. The complexity of these simulation scenarios demands high fidelity modeling of the physical channels at very dense resolution of the trajectories of each moving radio in order to handle rapid changes and multi-path, a high performance computing problem of its own. Presented is an approach to reduce the run-time of these high fidelity simulations by constructing precise results based on adjacent ray-paths from a lower resolution simulation. Speed and accuracy trade-offs are presented for this approach in typical urban scenarios, demonstrating its effectiveness in meeting the growing needs of wireless channel emulation.
This paper presents results from sea to land propagation using Wireless InSite. The effort explores the effects of various elements in the scene and how they impact the results. The various elements in the scene include the ships out at sea, the ships docked, the docks themselves, the buildings around the dock area, and the material properties of each.
This paper focuses on the selection of an ideal ACD profile as well as the requisite charge distribution for an ACD antenna as a feed to design a 100Ω input impedance reflector IRA. An ideal configuration of ACD feeding structure for reflector IRA is chosen based on FDTD analysis results.
Applications ranging from communications to RADAR and even medical devices depend on antenna arrays. Hand calculations successfully facilitate the construction of stand-alone arrays; however, what happens when the mounting platform becomes a part of the radiating system? XFdtd 3D EM Simulation Software ensures that the final design meets all requirements before physical prototyping or manufacturing can begin. This application note from the January 2013 issue of Microwave Journal demonstrates the process of adding an electrically steerable, conformal antenna array to the body of a high speed missile. By leveraging XF7’s XStream GPU Acceleration, a complex 3D simulation including multiple array elements with curved surfaces that could take several hours was completed within a few minutes.
This study was motivated by the RF, microwave and antenna industries to include passive and active circuits with measured S-parameters in the FDTD simulation. Recently, a passivity enforcement method based on an inverse eigenvalue method was proposed for transient circuit simulation (C.Saunders and M.Steer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.99, no.11, 2011). In this paper, the passivity enforcement method is introduced to the electromagnetic simulation method FDTD to simulate circuit networks characterized by measured S-parameters together with other geometries such as antennas. Using XFdtd®, the simulation results for some examples showed that various methods, such as the Laplace transform, combined with the passivity enforcement method were quite accurate and robust. This combined FDTD and circuit method can be applied to simulate antennas together with these devices characterized by measured S-parameters.
Array modeling is a multistep process that often includes several revisions until the design goal is met. The Mobile Base Station Designer in XF7’s XTend Script Library helps to speed up this design process. XStream® GPU Acceleration rapidly simulates the array using the actual antenna model to ensure the final design meets the design criteria. This presentation demonstrates how to design a conformal antenna array on a curved surface.
A Conformal 2D FDFD Eigen Mode Method for Wave Port Excitation and S-Parameter Extraction in 3D FDTD Simulation
In this paper, a conformal 2D FDFD Eigen mode method is derived for solving arbitrarily shaped waveguides or transmission lines. Some examples such as horn antennas, circular waveguide filters and differential pairs are presented to show the capabilities of the developed conformal 2D FDFD Eigen mode solver.
Significant improvements in the quality and reliability of indoor WLAN communications are claimed for devices with MIMO technology applying 802.11n standards, which allow users to achieve a theoretical data rate up to 300-600 Mbps on a single transmission. This paper presents an analysis of a commercial 802.11n MIMO 2×3 dual band (2.4 and 5 GHz) system focusing on the operational throughput performance over an indoor environment for Line of Sight (LOS) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) scenarios. Combined field strength distribution, throughput, and propagation-channel environments will be examined, comparing physical measurements with simulation results generated in Remcom’s Wireless InSite.
Ultra-wideband communications technologies such as LTE and WiMax take advantage of advanced equipment configurations such as complex antenna geometries and phased-array emitters. Such systems become tedious or impossible to model analytically, and are therefore highly suited for analysis by electromagnetic simulation. Additionally, once a device alone is modeled, it is necessary to simulate its performance as placed in a practical environment (such as an urban area). This presentation demonstrates how Remcom's XFdtd and Wireless InSite tools, utilizing GPU acceleration technology, are used together to perform advanced communication systems analysis.
Using Simulation to Optimize Safety, Performance, and Cost Savings When Integrating an Antenna Onto a Platform
Successful integration of an antenna onto a vehicle platform poses many challenges, from vehicle features and motion impacting antenna performance to environmental factors such as terrain and buildings reducing system effectiveness. Furthermore, radiation hazards may pose risks to nearby personnel. This paper provides a variety of examples of how modeling and simulation can be used to analyze antenna performance, identify problems, and evaluate potential solutions.
In this paper, a dual-band parasitic radiator is designed and optimized to modify the current distribution on the ground plane of a handheld terminal. Using a variable-length dual-band parasitic radiator, the ground current distribution is controlled, and low specific absorption rate (SAR) and high radiation efficiency at 900 and 1880 MHz are obtained. The proposed antenna scheme consisting of a dual-band parasitic element and a driven dual-band antenna reduces the peak SAR by 50% and 40% at 900 and 1880 MHz, respectively, compared to a conventional dual-band antenna. Significant increase in radiation efficiency is also obtained.