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Wireless InSite Propagation Models

Wireless InSite includes models for urban, indoor, and rough terrain. There are several modeling options:


High Fidelity Ray-tracing Models

X3D (multithreaded and GPU accelerated)

The X3D Ray model is Remcom’s first ray-based model to use GPU acceleration to reduce calculation time. X3D is a 3D propagation model, so there are no restrictions on geometry shape or transmitter/receiver height. The model includes effects from reflections, diffractions, transmissions, and atmospheric absorption. Applications include urban, indoor, and indoor-outdoor propagation scenarios.

Full 3D

Remcom’s Full 3D model is a general propagation model that can be applied to urban, indoor, and indoor-outdoor propagation. The model can handle arbitrary geometry and transmitter/receivers at any height. Users have the option of performing the ray tracing with the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method, or Eigenray, which is based on the method of images. The model includes effects from reflections, diffractions, and transmissions.

Fast Ray-Based Methods

Urban Canyon Ray Model (2D)

The Urban Canyon models are intended for high-rise urban environments where the transmitting and receiving antennas are located close to the ground relative to the building heights. Energy that diffracts over the rooftops of buildings is assumed to be negligible. Urban Canyon includes propagation effects from reflections and diffractions.

Vertical Plane Ray Model (2D)

The Vertical Plane is a 2D ray based model for predicting propagation over irregular terrain. The model only considers energy propagating in the vertical plane that contains the transmitter and receiving antennas. Vertical plane is well suited for propagation distances up to 20 km, and includes effects from reflections and diffractions.

Vertical Plane Urban Propagation

Vertical Plane Urban Propagation (VPUP) is a deterministic model designed to rapidly calculate propagation in urban scenarios. When line of sight exists between the transmitter and receiver, the free space path loss is returned. For transmitters and receivers separated by buildings, the path loss is determined by considering energy that diffracts over the actual detailed urban profile.  

Triple Path Geodesic

Triple Path Geodesic is a deterministic model designed to enhance the VPUP predictions for urban environments. When building geometry obscures the line of sight between the transmitter and receiver, the model calculates the contributions from energy traveling around the sides of the buildings and over the rooftops. Point to point calculations are typically on the order of milliseconds.

Empirical Propagation Models


Hata is a non-deterministic empirical model which takes frequency, transmitting antenna height, receiving antenna height and the distance from the transmitting to the receiving antenna into account for urban propagation. These parameters are used to predict field strength using an equation derived from measurements. In addition to the standard Hata results, free space attenuation is used in line of sight situations. Hata is valid for frequencies between 30 MHz and 1500 MHz.


COST-Hata is an extension to the Hata model for frequencies between 1500 MHz and 2000 MHz.


Walfisch-Ikegami is a deterministic empirical model useful in predictions where the dominant energy is contributed by diffractions over rooftops.

Wall Count

The Wall Count model is the Wireless InSite Real Time method for indoor calculation. Direct rays are constructed between the transmitter and the receiver, and every wall intersected in the indoor geometry is counted. Each intersection adds an additional 3 dB of loss to free space path loss. (This model is currently accessible through the API only.)

OPNET Path Attenuation Routine

OPNET Path Attenuation Routine (OPAR) is a deterministic urban path loss algorithm that uses the building depth between the transmitting and receiving antennas to enhance attenuation predictions.

Free Space

The Free Space model returns the free space path loss between a transmitter and receiver based on distance and frequency.