This paper presents results from modeling RF propagation in a mine using Wireless InSite®. The Edgar Mine in Idaho Springs, CO provided the realistic scenario for the model. The path loss exponent was evaluated for a 5m section of the modeled mine by considering three different materials (concrete, dry earth, and dry granite) and three different standard deviation of surface roughness values for dry granite (0cm, 0.5cm, and 1cm). When comparing this simulated data with data retrieved from the Edgar Mine, it was determined that Wireless InSite's Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) ray tracing code is capable of portraying a communications system within a mine environment.
This is a list of published papers and articles that reference our software.
This paper presents results from sea to land propagation using Wireless InSite. The effort explores the effects of various elements in the scene and how they impact the results. The various elements in the scene include the ships out at sea, the ships docked, the docks themselves, the buildings around the dock area, and the material properties of each.
Wind turbines located near a radar installation can significantly interfere with the ability of the radar to operate properly. Remcom has used our tools and expertise in radar scattering to perform a number of government-funded and internal research efforts into the impact that wind turbines and wind farms have on radar returns for Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar, early warning radar, weather radar, and instrumentation radar. Highlights of some of these effects and relevant samples and white papers are provided in this brief overview.
Radar scattering from a turbine’s moving blades can interfere with Doppler radar systems, producing ghost images. Understanding the scattering properties of a blade can provide radar manufacturers with the necessary information to mitigate any potential issues. This study compares the radar cross section of a metal turbine blade, a hollow fiberglass turbine blade, and a hollow fiberglass turbine blade with a metal spar using Remcom's XFdtd EM Simulation Software.
This paper focuses on the selection of an ideal ACD profile as well as the requisite charge distribution for an ACD antenna as a feed to design a 100Ω input impedance reflector IRA. An ideal configuration of ACD feeding structure for reflector IRA is chosen based on FDTD analysis results.
Applications ranging from communications to RADAR and even medical devices depend on antenna arrays. Hand calculations successfully facilitate the construction of stand-alone arrays; however, what happens when the mounting platform becomes a part of the radiating system? XFdtd 3D EM Simulation Software ensures that the final design meets all requirements before physical prototyping or manufacturing can begin. This application note from the January 2013 issue of Microwave Journal demonstrates the process of adding an electrically steerable, conformal antenna array to the body of a high speed missile. By leveraging XF7’s XStream GPU Acceleration, a complex 3D simulation including multiple array elements with curved surfaces that could take several hours was completed within a few minutes.
The use of general purpose computing on a GPU is an effective way to accelerate the FDTD method. This paper introduces ﬂexibility to the theoretically best available approach and examines the performance on both Tesla and Fermi architecture GPUs and identiﬁes the best way to determine the GPU parameters for the proposed method.
This study was motivated by the RF, microwave and antenna industries to include passive and active circuits with measured S-parameters in the FDTD simulation. Recently, a passivity enforcement method based on an inverse eigenvalue method was proposed for transient circuit simulation (C.Saunders and M.Steer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.99, no.11, 2011). In this paper, the passivity enforcement method is introduced to the electromagnetic simulation method FDTD to simulate circuit networks characterized by measured S-parameters together with other geometries such as antennas. Using XFdtd®, the simulation results for some examples showed that various methods, such as the Laplace transform, combined with the passivity enforcement method were quite accurate and robust. This combined FDTD and circuit method can be applied to simulate antennas together with these devices characterized by measured S-parameters.
Simulation can greatly enhance the design and prototype process when developing new products. This is especially true for the design of waveguide devices, such as a cavity filter, as the engineer can quickly calculate a number of key metrics leading to an optimal configuration. Through optimization via scripting, exceedingly fast processing using a GPU, and waveguide ports, this presentation demonstrates some of XF7’s features for the design, optimization, and analysis of waveguide devices.
Array modeling is a multistep process that often includes several revisions until the design goal is met. The Mobile Base Station Designer in XF7’s XTend Script Library helps to speed up this design process. XStream® GPU Acceleration rapidly simulates the array using the actual antenna model to ensure the final design meets the design criteria. This presentation demonstrates how to design a conformal antenna array on a curved surface.
This paper discusses using GPU acceleration within the Moving Window Finite Difference Time Domain (MWFDTD) method to achieve real time propagation simulation while maintaining accuracy.
Case Study: Using Electromagnetic Simulation to Ensure EMC Compliance: How Remcom’s XFdtd Enabled KEC Limited to Differentiate Itself and Provide a Unique Customer Benefit
KEC, a UK manufacturer of EMC interconnect components and cable harness assemblies, strengthened its market leadership and differentiated itself from the competition by offering a unique technology. Using Remcom’s XFdtd to model and simulate customers’ designs, KEC can identify problems early in the process and recommend corrections before the EMC certification stage. This enables customers to avoid costly mistakes and pass certification testing on the first try.
A Conformal 2D FDFD Eigen Mode Method for Wave Port Excitation and S-Parameter Extraction in 3D FDTD Simulation
In this paper, a conformal 2D FDFD Eigen mode method is derived for solving arbitrarily shaped waveguides or transmission lines. Some examples such as horn antennas, circular waveguide filters and differential pairs are presented to show the capabilities of the developed conformal 2D FDFD Eigen mode solver.
This paper demonstrates the design of Rotman lens for ESM sensor application in operation band 32-38 GHz. The initial design is created in Remcom’s Rotman Lens Designer and then verified against experimental measurements. Parameters of the realized prototype are presented and methods of increasing its performance are outlined.
Significant improvements in the quality and reliability of indoor WLAN communications are claimed for devices with MIMO technology applying 802.11n standards, which allow users to achieve a theoretical data rate up to 300-600 Mbps on a single transmission. This paper presents an analysis of a commercial 802.11n MIMO 2×3 dual band (2.4 and 5 GHz) system focusing on the operational throughput performance over an indoor environment for Line of Sight (LOS) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) scenarios. Combined field strength distribution, throughput, and propagation-channel environments will be examined, comparing physical measurements with simulation results generated in Remcom’s Wireless InSite.
Ultra-wideband communications technologies such as LTE and WiMax take advantage of advanced equipment configurations such as complex antenna geometries and phased-array emitters. Such systems become tedious or impossible to model analytically, and are therefore highly suited for analysis by electromagnetic simulation. Additionally, once a device alone is modeled, it is necessary to simulate its performance as placed in a practical environment (such as an urban area). This presentation demonstrates how Remcom's XFdtd and Wireless InSite tools, utilizing GPU acceleration technology, are used together to perform advanced communication systems analysis.
Using Simulation to Optimize Safety, Performance, and Cost Savings When Integrating an Antenna Onto a Platform
Successful integration of an antenna onto a vehicle platform poses many challenges, from vehicle features and motion impacting antenna performance to environmental factors such as terrain and buildings reducing system effectiveness. Furthermore, radiation hazards may pose risks to nearby personnel. This paper provides a variety of examples of how modeling and simulation can be used to analyze antenna performance, identify problems, and evaluate potential solutions.
In this paper, a dual-band parasitic radiator is designed and optimized to modify the current distribution on the ground plane of a handheld terminal. Using a variable-length dual-band parasitic radiator, the ground current distribution is controlled, and low specific absorption rate (SAR) and high radiation efficiency at 900 and 1880 MHz are obtained. The proposed antenna scheme consisting of a dual-band parasitic element and a driven dual-band antenna reduces the peak SAR by 50% and 40% at 900 and 1880 MHz, respectively, compared to a conventional dual-band antenna. Significant increase in radiation efficiency is also obtained.
This paper demonstrates the closed-loop, adaptive-waveform approach applied to high-fidelity target model signatures generated by XFdtd. The radar equation is incorporated into the authors' models for use in the waveform design procedure. Because SNR varies with range, so do the optimized waveforms for target recognition. Constant-modulus waveform constraints are enforced, and a template-based classification strategy is used.
MIMO Indoor Propagation Prediction using 3D Shoot-and-Bounce Ray (SBR) Tracing Technique for 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
The performance of voice, video and data streaming applications using the recently developed standard 802.11n with its MIMO antenna options, strongly depends on the nature of the environment. Although many authors have provided evidence on the effectiveness of this technology in field strength distribution, throughput or propagation-simulation environments, work linking all of these parameters is limited. This paper provides a comparison of metrics for a 2×3 dual-band MIMO system operating at 2.4 and 5 GHz in a typical office building, obtained using a commercial wireless router. The measurements are consistent with simulation results obtained using a 3D Shoot and Bounce Ray (SBR) software.