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Circuit Element Optimizer

Determine component values for Full-Wave Matching Circuit Optimization (FW-MCO).


Full-Wave Matching Circuit Optimization (FW-MCO) is performed by XF's Circuit Element Optimizer.  This capability selects the optimal component values for matching network layouts, printed circuit boards, antennas, filters, or other RF structures.  Since the FDTD simulation method is used, the multitude of electromagnetic phenomena affecting the RF structure and components is accounted for, such as the coupling between the driven antenna and nearby copper traces.

XFdtd CEO Image 1
Matching network for a dual band antenna.
Circuit elements for optimization connect copper pads.

Goals and Component Values

The Circuit Element Optimizer characterizes the RF structure using full wave FDTD simulation, then selects optimal component values based on the following user defined goals:

  • Radiation efficiency
  • System efficiency
  • S-parameters

Although traditional components include capacitors, inductors, and resistors, modern applications utilize more advanced components to achieve design requirements. The Circuit Element Optimizer supports the following types of components:

  • Fixed resistor, capacitor, inductor
  • Ideal resistor, capacitor, inductor
  • Realistic capacitor, inductor with user-defined equivalent series resistance
  • Standard *.s2p file definitions downloaded from component manufacturer
  • Passive tunable integrated circuits (PTIC or “tuners”) in the MDIF format of *.s2p files

Each component can take on a discrete range of values, representing the parts available from a component supplier.

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Operating Modes

RF circuits are often used in different modes of operation, for example a mobile phone in free space versus one held in a hand. The Circuit Element Optimizer is able to recognize and consider multiple modes of operation when selecting component values. This results in tuner values that are optimized for individual modes and fixed L or C components that are best for all modes.

Design Flow with CEO

  1. Set up the XF project including copper traces, component locations, materials, grid, etc.
  2. Create a Response Matrix which uses FDTD simulations to characterize field interactions affecting the components.
  3. Perform a Circuit Optimization that uses S-Parameter and/or efficiency goals to select the optimal set of component values.
  4. . Verify that the matching network or filter performs as desired with the selected component values.


Design Flow 1 and 2
Design Flow 3
Design Flow 4

Additional Information

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